动名词的复合结构讲解(附详细例子)

来源于未知   雪域流沙发布   2020-07-23 11:50更新  浏览

动名词的复合结构讲解

在动名词当中,有一种结构叫做动名词复合结构。这种结构本质上还是动名词,但是它们与普通动名词不同的是:它们有自己的逻辑主语

来看一个句子:

Would you mind closing the window?

首先,这句话的基本句型是:Would you mind sth?

mind 为及物动词,后面应该直接加名词性质的东西。这里,closing the  window 就是一个动名词结构,相当于一个名词,作 mind 的宾语。

再来看:假如我们在动名词(closing the window)前面加一个逻辑主语会怎么样呢?

Would you mind me/my closing the window?

在 closing the window 前面加上一个逻辑主语:me/my, 这样形成的结构就是动名词复合结构。也就是包括逻辑主语的动名词。

一、动名词复合结构的构成

1、名词所有格 + 动名词,通常指有生命的名词或名词短语例如:

John’s winning of the competition made many people happy.
约翰在比赛中获胜使许多人感到高兴。

We were all sorry about Jane's losing her parents like that.
简那样失去父母,我们都很难过。

My friend’s talking annoys people listening to her.
我朋友的讲话使听她的人很恼火。

They objected to the youngest girl's being given the command position.
他们反对让最小的女孩担任指挥职务。

Federico was pleased by Carlos's making the Dean's List for the first time.
费德里科对卡洛斯第一次进入院长名单感到高兴。

2、名词普通格 + 动名词

A、当动名词的逻辑主语有其他词修饰时,要用普通格。例如:

Federico was pleased by Carlos, his oldest son, making the Dean's List for the first time.
费德里科对他的大儿子卡洛斯第一次进入院长名单感动高兴。

解析:同位语 his oldest son 修饰 Carlos,用普通格。

B、当动名词的逻辑主语是复数的,集体的或无生命的名词时,通常要用普通格。例如:

Professor Villa was amazed by her students working as hard as they did.
维拉教授对她的学生们的努力工作感到惊讶。

The class working collaboratively was somebody else's idea.
整个班d集体合作是别人的主意。

It was a case of old age getting the better of them.
这是一个老年人占上风的例子。

Is there any hope of your workshop winning the red banner?
你们车间有希望赢得红旗吗?

C、当动名词的逻辑主语是一个词组时(其中心词也可能是生命体名词),也用普通格。例如:

We have an objection to Mary and Jane going there on such a windy day.
我们反对玛丽和简在这样大风的天气里到那里去。

3、物主代词 + 动名词,表示动名词的逻辑主语的某个行为动作,例如:

I can't stand his singing in the shower.
我受不了他在淋浴时唱歌。

解析:若上句改为 I can't stand him singing in the shower,句子的意思就变得模棱两可,受不了的是“他”还是“他唱歌”这个动作,所以必须用物主代词 his。

I couldn't take his griping anymore.
我再也受不了他的抱怨了。

解析:若上句改为 I couldn't take him griping anymore,句子的意思就变得模棱两可,受不了的是“他”还是“他抱怨”这个动作,所以必须用物主代词 his。

Their smiling irritated her.
他们的微笑激怒了她。

Please forgive our intruding.
请原谅我们的打扰。

I didn't like his going to New York without me.
我不喜欢他没带上我就去纽约。

All people heard about their murdering in the back street.
所有人都听说了他们在后街杀人的事。

解析:同样以上这些例句若改成宾格代词,都会出现句子意思变得模棱两可,所以必须用物主代词。

4、宾格代词 + 动名词,表示带有某个行为动作的逻辑主语,例如:

I noticed you standing in the alley last night.
昨晚我注意到站在巷子里的你。

解析:若上句改为 I noticed your standing in the alley last night,意为“昨晚我注意到你站在巷子里。”,很明显跟感官动词 notice 所表达的意思不符合。

要使用宾格 + 动名词结构的主要发生在感官动词后面,意为“感官某人做过某事”,例如:

I saw a man making his way towards me.
我看到一名男子向我走来。

She watched the kids playing in the yard.
她看着孩子们在院子里玩。

类似的还有 find,意为“发觉,发现”,例如:

I suddenly found myself running down the street.
我不知不觉突然在街上跑了起来。

二、动名词复合结构的作用

1、作主语

Your taking the prize was a nice surprise.
你获奖真是个惊喜。

Their singing inspired us.
他们的歌声鼓舞了我们。

Her coming to us was the right thing to do.
她来找我们是对的。

It is hardly possible our starting so early.
我们动身这么早几乎是不可能的。

解析:it 为形式主语,动名词复合结构作真正的主语。

2、作宾语

I so appreciated his helping out.
我很感激他帮忙。

I appreciate your understanding of the matter.
我感谢你对此事的理解。

I feel bad at his missing this opportunity.
我对他错过这个机会感到遗憾。

I remember Tom's going there.
我记得汤姆去过那里。

I would appreciate your caalling back this afternoon.
你今天下午能回电话的话,我将非常感谢。

3、作表语

One of his duties is attending meetings.
他的职责之一是参加会议。

The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
学习英语最难的是理解动名词。

One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.
生活的乐趣之一是在床上吃早餐。

4、作介词宾语

Mary insisted on my reading the letter.
玛丽坚持要我看信。

在口语和非正式中,动名词复合结构作宾语时,常用人称代词宾格代替物主代词,用名词普通格代替所有格。例如:

I can hardly imagine Peter sailing across the Altlantic Ocean in five days.
我简直不敢想象彼得在五天内横渡大西洋。

They don't like me coming here.
他们不喜欢我到这儿来。

注意:

1)若动名词的逻辑主语是无生命的“物”,而不是“人”时,最好用普通格。例如:

I was afraid of the tend falling down during the night.
我怕夜里帐篷倒塌了。

2)若动名词的罗辑主语由较长的一组词构成时,最好用普通格。例如:

Do you remember John and his father coming to see us last Christmas.
你还记得约翰和他的父亲去年圣诞节来看我们吗?

3)若动名词复合结构作主语时,则最好用所有格或物主代词。例如:

Tom's/His coming home late worries his mother.
汤姆/他的晚归使他妈妈担心。

三、动名词复合结构的否定式、被动式和完成式

动名词复合结构的否定式是在动名词前面加not等否定词;动名词与其逻辑主语之间构成被动关系时,动名词用被动式;动名词表示的动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前时,动名词用完成式。例如:

Mary's not passing the exam made her mother very angry.
玛丽考试不及格使她妈妈非常生气。

She didn't mind her books being taken away and used by other students.
她并不介意她的书被别的学生拿去用。

I know nothing about his having gone to Beijing.
我不知道他已经去了北京。

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